text and translation by Mihailo Alić
Human cloning text (1999.)
Dok mehanički klavir nastavlja da svira

Robotska ruka sa špricom na vrhu ispušta i razvlači veštačko vlakno i povezuje ga kao mišić na tetive sintetičke kosti. Ljudski torzo razapet na velikom krugu se utapa u silikon koji će postati nova koža. Ovo je početak špice HBO serije Westworld, aktuelne naučno (fantastične) teme. Da li se radi o nauci ili fantastici, svakako više ovo prvo, 43 godine nakon istoimenog filma o zabavnom parku u kome su domaćini čovekoliki roboti. Nezaustavljivi filmski talas započet pre 90 godina Metropolisom Frica Langa, klasik žanra iz osamdesetih Blade Runner, u 21. veku dobija novi zamah TV serijama Real Humans (Švedska 2012.), Humans (UK/USA 2015.), da bi prošle godine kulminirao pomenutom HBO serijom. Izgleda da je jedan od najvećih ljudskih snova, da kreira inteligentni život, na dohvat ruke, no glasovi koji govore da bi to mogla da nam postane i najveća noćna mora su sve glasniji. Koliko nas godina deli od Singulariteta, tačke u istoriji u kojoj će Veštačka inteligencija (AI) postati superiorna u odnosu na ljudsku? I da li ćemo u tom trenutku, ili ubrzo potom postati beznačajni i bespotrebni kao vrsta, sići sa istorijske pozornice i ući u udžbenike neke nove biologije kao vrsta koja je izgubila primat? Da li će nas naša sopstvena tehnologija, androidi koje ćemo stvoriti da nam budu sluge, nadmašiti?

Bez vraćanja u daleku prošlost, setimo se stolara Djepeta koji je napravio lutku Pinokija u želji da ima sina. Želja i jednog i drugog je bila jaka, cela priča i jeste o putu na koji lutka kreće da bi postala pravi čovek. Nezadovoljan svetom oko sebe, čovek je uvek pokušavao da ga kontroliše, često u formi stvaranja veštačkog sveta koji može da programira i prilagodjava svojim potrebama i željama. Kreacija robota, a u ovom veku i androida, izraz je te želje. Zabavni park Westworld samo je nastavak naše fascinacije virtuelnim svetovima, video igrama u kojima prelazimo u neku drugu realnost i borimo se protiv novih neprijatelja. Izazov, slično pećinskom čoveku koji kopljima ide na mamuta, današnji čovek iz fotelje u dnevnoj sobi vodi neke nove bitke, novim sredstvima, ovaj put radi zabave i uz relativnu sigurnost, barem fizičku.

Matt McMullen, osnivač i CEO kompanije koja proizvodi Real Doll, je savremeni Pigmalion koji uspešno ugradjuje život (robotiku i veštačku inteligenciju) u svoje skulptorske kreacije, hiper realistične seksi lutke. Svoj pionirski posao počeo je iz garaže pre tačno 20 godina kao hobi nakon posla u fabrici silikonskih maski. Nakon što je napravio prvu lutku u prirodnoj veličini i anatomski korektnu, narudžbine su počele nezadrživo da pristižu. Tehnologija se vremenom menjala, a lutke prevazišle osnovnu namenu i postale partneri za usamljene muškarce. Tako je industrija zabave za odrasle prva zakoračila u polje kućnih androida, robota po čovečijem liku koji će imati uslužnu funkciju u domovima budućnosti. Tehnologija je još u povoju, ali prikazane robotske glave već imaju artikulaciju vrata, očiju, kapaka, usana, izraza lica, i govora. Kupci i ne očekuju visoko parne razgovore sa robotom, već zabavne interakcije sa lepoticom koja ih strpljivo čeka kod kuće kada se umorni vrate sa posla. Interesantna je mogućnost prilagodjavanja karaktera partnerke, pa će njeni odgovori i pitanja zavisiti od toga šta ste podesili, što naknadno možete i promeniti, dobijajući uvek drugačije odgovore na standardna pitanja, pa će to dodatno opravdati cenu ove skupe igračke. Naravno, lutka ima artikulaciju skeleta, pa je možete postaviti u koju god pozu poželite, bilo za razgovor ili primarnu funkciju. Svež izgled dobijate i njenim preoblačenjem, što uz neograničenu kreativnost produžava korisnikovu zainteresovanost za igru.

Ova tehnologija, kao i mnoge druge, već sada ima svoje promotere i ogorčene protivnike. Krstaški pohod protiv seks robota predvodi profesorka Kathleen Richardson na veb sajtu campaignagainstsexrobots.org, a na suprotnoj strani su psiho terapeuti okupljeni oko Internacionalnog kongresa o ljubavi i seksu sa robotima na sajtu loveandsexwithrobots.org. Prvi polaze od toga da je prostitucija kao zanimanje ponižavajuća za žene, ali sada ne odobravaju ni da ih roboti u tome zamene, verovatno u oba slučaja plašeći se da će ekskluzivan položaj žena kao pružaoca seksualnih usluga muškarcima biti uzdrman, zbog čega se protive i potencijalnom kloniranju ljudi. Interesantno, muškarci još nisu tražili da se zabrani proizvodnja vibratora. Propagatori odnosa izmedju ljudi i robota zalažu se za slobodu izbora, kao i terapeutske učinke koje ovi veštački partneri mogu imati na osobe koje iz bilo kog razloga ne mogu ili ne žele da imaju tradicionalnu partnersku vezu sa drugim čovekom. U današnje vreme nije čudno ako neko umesto partnera izabere ili ostane da bude sa kućnim ljubimcem ili detetom, ali je neprihvatljivo ako je objekat ljubavi predmet ili inteligentni uredjaj. Svakako da će proširenje broja i vrsta opcija za emotivno i seksualno partnerstvo u budućnosti uticati na tradicionalne veze, ali to ne mora da bude u negativnom smislu, već će odsustvo eksluzivnosti izbora samo učiniti da se ljudi više potrude da ostvare medjusobnu vezu, u konkurenciji sa ovim alternativama koje su manje obavezujuće, sigurnije, i lakše ostvarive.

Na putu do uslužnog kućnog androida postoji još dosta tehnoloških prepreka. Današnji roboti su još uvek plastično-metalne kante čije udove pokreću elektro-mehanički aktuatori, motori, koji su teški, troše mnogo struje, i nemaju snagu koju čovek ima uz samo jedan mali obrok dnevno. Veštačka vlakna na bazi dielektričnih elastomera koja će igrati ulogu mišića već su pokazala izuzetne prednosti nad motorima, i uskoro uvode novu kategoriju u robotici, meke robote nalik živim stvorenjima koje poznajemo, i nama samima. Razvoj Veštačke inteligencije kao softvera na kome će raditi ove mašine svakako je paralelan napredak koji će nas za par decenija dovesti do sintetičkih ljudi - androida.

Pored kontraverzi oko upotrebe robota za seks i emotivno partnerstvo, zabrinutost postoji i oko gubitka radnih mesta i visokih dometa koje Veštačka inteligencija može postići u svom razvoju. Opravdani su strahovi da sa razvojem sintetičkih ljudi, oni pravi postanu nepotrebni i budu zamenjeni njima. U proizvodnji i biznisu ceni se efikasnost, a šta će se dogoditi kada ljudi postanu preskupi? Automatizacije i uvodjenja robota u proizvodnju već su dovele do povećanja nezaposlenosti, prvo u radničkim zanimanjima, a kako kompjuteri postaju sve pametniji sa razvojem AI softvera, dolazi do gubitka poslova i u granama koje zahtevaju visoko obrazovani kadar. Sve češće se govori o uvodjenju Univerzalnog osnovnog dohotka koji bi primali svi gradjani, nezavisno da li su zaposleni ili ne. Za naivne ovo zvuči kao Eldorado ili biblijska priča o Raju, za one promućurnije nagoveštaj kraja - svaka civilizacija koja se odala raskoši i dokolici brojala je svoje poslednje dane. Ideja zvuči i kao Euforija, stanje bez bola koje osvoji bolesnika na samrti. Po predanju Adam i Eva su živeli u Raju u kome nisu radili, a Bog im je obezbedjivao sve, uz samo jedan uslov -  da ne traže više znanja i pameti od onih koje im je on dao. Evina znatiželja ili lakomislenost, Zmija kao virus koji je ubačen u Evin mozak, Adam koji je odan Evi, tek Bog ih izbacuje iz Raja i osudjuje na život pun rada i patnje, antitezu Raju. Sada, na kraju puta, dolazimo do sinteze - tehnologija i veštačka inteligencija nam omogućavaju da sve manje radimo i mislimo, a uskoro ćemo primati i zagarantovani dohodak - privid Raja - Potrošački Raj.

Apokaliptički scenario o kome se u naučnim krugovima takodje diskutuje je mogućnost da ljudi za Veštačku inteligenciju postanu ono što su majmuni danas nama, a on ima i racionalnu osnovu, pošto ljudi često rade protiv interesa svoje vrste iz lične gramzljivosti, uništavajući prirodnu sredinu, pa bi se Veštačka inteligencija mogla nakon Singulariteta postaviti kao staratelj, u najboljem interesu onih kojima služi, ljudi.

Jedini racionalan odgovor koji parira Usponu Veštačke inteligencije dao je najveći vizionar 21. veka Elon Musk, osnivač Tesla i SpaceX korporacija, a to je integracija ljudskog mozga i kompjutera, u kom pravcu je osnovao novu kompaniju Neuralink, gde planira da proizvodi implante koji će omogućiti pomenutu bežičnu sinergiju. Biolozi bi ovo nazvali evolutivnom adaptacijom u prisustvu konkurentske Veštačke inteligencije. Ili posmatrajte kao transhumanizam na delu.

Dopadala nam se ili ne budućnost pred nama, promene su stalne, neizbežne, i sve brže i radikalnije. Ko se prilagodi - preživeće, oni drugi ..., pa već znate poznatu "teoriju" evolucije. Dok se Zemlja okreće, Svemir širi, mehanički klavir nastavlja da svira svoju beskrajnu melodiju ...

While mechanical piano continues to play

Robotic arm with a syringe at the top is releasing a stretched artificial fiber and connecting it as a muscle to tendons of a synthetic bone. Human torso crucified on a great circle drowning in silicon which will become the new skin. This is the beginning of prime time HBO series Westworld, current science (fiction) show. Is it science or fiction, certainly more the former, 43 years after the eponymous film about the amusement park in which hosts were humanoid robots. Unstoppable wave of movies begining 90 years ago with Metropolis by Fritz Lang, continued with classic of the genre from the eighties, Blade Runner, in the 21st century got a new impetus with TV series Real Humans (Sweden 2012), Humans (UK / USA, 2015), and last year culminated with mentioned HBO series. It seems that one of the greatest of human dreams, to create intelligent life, is at our fingertips, but voices saying that it could become our biggest nightmare are also loud. How far are we from the Singularity point in history in which the Artificial Intelligence (AI) becomes superior to human? And will we at that time, or shortly thereafter become meaningless and useless as a species, and get off the stage of history and enter into some new textbooks of biology as a species that has lost supremacy? Whether our own technology, androids we created to be our servants, will surpass us?

Without returning to the distant past, let us remember the carpenter Gepetto who made Pinocchio doll in his desire to have a son. The desire of both was strong, and the whole story is of the journey the doll enbarks on to become a real boy. Discontent with the world around them, humans have always tried to control it, often in the form of creating an artificial world which can be programmed and adjusted to their needs and desires. The creation of the robot, and in this century an Android, is an expression of this desire. Westworld amusement park is just a continuation of our fascination with virtual worlds, video games in which we move to a different reality and fight against new enemies. The challenge, like a caveman going against mammoth with spears, modern man from the livingroom chair leads new battles, with new arms, this time for fun and in relative safety, at least physically.

Matt McMullen, founder and CEO of the company that produces Real Doll is a modern Pygmalion, who successfully implants life (Robotics and Artificial Intelligence) in his sculptural creations, hyper-realistic sex dolls. His pioneering work began in the garage 20 years ago as a hobby after work in the factory of silicone masks. Having made the first life-size anatomically correct doll, orders began to arrive rapidly. Technology has changed over time, the doll overcome the basic purpose and become a partner for lonely men. Thus, the adult entertainment industry is the first to step into the field of companion android robots to serve in the homes of the future. The technology is still in its infancy but robot heads already have articulated neck, eyes, eyelids, lips, facial expressions and speech. Customers do not really expect high levels of conversation with the robot, more a fun interactions with the beauty that is waiting patiently at home when they come back tired from work. Interesting is also the possibility of adjusting the robot's character, so her answers and questions will depend on what you set, which you can change later and over time, always getting different answers to standard questions, which may justify the initial high cost of these adult toys. Also, the doll has an articulate skeleton, so it can be placed in whatever pose you want, either to talk or for primary function ;-) User's interest in the game is furthered with unlimited creativity in dressing the doll in different outfits all the time.

This technology, as most others, already has their promoters and bitter opponents. Crusade against sex robots is led by Professor Kathleen Richardson on campaignagainstsexrobots.org website and on the opposite side are the psycho therapists around the International Congress on love and sex with robots on loveandsexwithrobots.org site. First assume that prostitution as a profession is humiliating for women, but they also do not approve of robots that replace them, probably in both cases fearing that women will loose exclusive status as providers of sexual services to men, also opposing potential human cloning for the same reason. Interestingly, men never campained against production of vibrators. Propagators of the relationship between humans and robots advocate for freedom of choice, as well as the therapeutic effects these artificial partners can have on people who for whatever reason can not or do not want to have a traditional partner relationship with another human. Nowadays, it is not surprising if one chooses to have a pet or a child / grandchild instead of a partner, but it is unacceptable if the subject of love is an object or an intelligent device. The expanded number and types of options for emotional and sexual partnership in the future will certainly affect the traditional ties, but not necessarily in a negative sense, since the absence of exclusivity will only make people want to put more effort into achieving a mutual relationship, competing with these alternatives that are less binding, safer, and more easily achievable.

On the way to the service home android, there are many technological hurdles. Today's robots are still plastic and metal buckets whose limbs are driven by electro-mechanical actuators, motors, which are heavy, consume a lot of electricity, and do not have the power that human has with only one small meal a day. Artificial fiber-based dielectric elastomer which will play the role of muscle already shown remarkable advantages over motors, and will soon introduce a new category of robotics, soft robots like living creatures we know, and ourselves. The development of artificial intelligence as software on which will these machine operate, certainly is parallel to the progress that will in a few decades lead to a synthetic human - android.

In addition to the controversy over the use of robots for sex and emotional partnership, there is a concern about the loss of jobs and high-range artificial intelligence that can be achieved in its development. Eligible are fears that with the development of synthetic humans, real humans will become unnecessary and will be replaced by them. In production and business, cost efficiency rules, so what happens when people become too expensive? Automation and the introduction of robots in production,lead to an increase in unemployment, first in the working-class occupations, but as computers get smarter with the development of AI software, there will be also a loss of jobs in industries that require highly educated employees. Increasingly, there are discussions and experiments introducting Universal Basic Income that would all citizens receive, regardless of whether they are employed or not. For naive this sounds like Eldorado or the biblical story of Paradise, for those more astute an indication of the end nearing - every civilization that indulged in luxury and idleness was counting its last days. The idea sounds also as Euphoria, pain-free state achieved near the end by a dying patient. According to the story, Adam and Eve lived in Paradise, where they did not work, and God provided everything, with only one condition - not to seek more knowledge and wisdom than those he gave to them. Eve's curiosity or lightheadedness, Snake-like virus introduced to her brain, Adam devoted to her, ended in God expelling them from Paradise and condemning them to a life of work and suffering, antithesis of Paradise. Now, at the end of the road, we reach the synthesis - technology and artificial intelligence allow us to do and think less, and we will soon receive a guaranteed income - a mirage of Paradise, in fact Consumer Paradise.

Apocalyptic scenario scientific community also discusses is the possibility that people will to Artificial Intelligence become what monkeys are to us today, and this also has a rational basis, since people often work against the interests of thier species out of personal greed, destroying the environment, and Artificial Intelligence may upon reaching the Singularity install itself as a tutor to us, in the best interests of those it serves, the people.

The only rational response that matches the Ascent of AI comes from one of the greatest visionaries of the 21st century, Elon Musk, founder of Tesla and SpaceX corporation. He proposes the integration of the human brain and the computer, founding a new company, Neuralink, which plans to make implants that will allow this wireless man-machine synergy. Biologists would call it evolutionary adaptation in the presence of competing AI. Or consider it Transhumanism at work.

Whether we like or not the future ahead of us, the changes are permanent, inevitable, and faster and more radical. Those who adjust will survive, the others ... you already know the famous "theory" of evolution. While the Earth rotates, the Space expands, and mechanical piano continues to play its endless tune ...

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